It is a theory developed in the early 1980s by the American physicist Alan Guth that tries to explain the events of the first moments of the Universe.
According to the theory of the Big Bang or the Big Bang, generally accepted, the Universe arose from an initial explosion that caused the expansion of matter from a state of extreme condensation. However, in the original formulation of the Big Bang theory there were several unresolved problems.
The state of matter at the time of the explosion was such that normal physical laws could not be applied. The degree of uniformity observed in the Universe was also difficult to explain because, according to this theory, the Universe would have expanded too quickly to develop this uniformity.
Guth based his inflationary theory on the work of physicists such as Stephen Hawking, who had studied extremely strong gravitational fields, such as those found in the vicinity of a black hole or at the very beginning of the Universe. This work shows that all matter in the Universe could have been created by quantum fluctuations in an 'empty' space under such conditions.
Guth's work uses the unified field theory to show that phase transitions could take place in the early stages of the Universe and that a region of that original chaotic state could have swollen rapidly to allow an observable region of the Universe to form.
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